The Catholic University of America

Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago

An inventory of the Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Photographs at The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives


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Mailing Address: The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064

Telephone: 202-319-5065

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Descriptive Summary

Repository: The Catholic University of America, American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives
Creator: Catholic Church
Title: The Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Photographs
Dates: 1892-1893
Extent: 50 photographs; 1 oversize box
Abstract: Consists of 50 photographs documenting the building, hall, and alcoves where Catholic educational institutions displayed objects and printed material from 1892-1893 during the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois.
Collection Number: ACUA 221
Language: English

Historical Note

In May 1890, a group of Catholic educators and members of clergy and religious orders met and decided that a Catholic Educational Exhibit at the 1892 World's Fair, also called the World's Columbian Exposition, would be a fabulous way to showcase advances in Catholic education as an important part of American Christianity. The exhibit would also be a way to favorably present American Catholicism to the general citizenry, and the Catholic Congress that met in Boston in July 1890 agreed.

The Catholic Congress appointed a committee that in turn sent out an invitation for Catholic education institutional leaders and others interested in Catholic education to meet in Chicago on October 8, 1890. The twenty-one representatives that attended agreed an exhibit could potentially assist in eliminating or significantly decreasing animosity towards Catholics in general and their education system because there was simply not much known about it among non-Catholics. By December 1890, a pamphlet with information on compiling material for exhibits had been mailed to various education institutions, including grade schools and colleges. The board of directors met two more times, once at the Columbus Club in Chicago on July 1, 1891, and again at the Lindell Hall in St. Louis on November 30, 1891. At the final meeting, the board of directors recommended appointment of executive officers and how the CEE would be supported financially. Cardinal and archbishops agreed with the report and named J. L. Spalding, the Bishop of Peoria, the president and Brother Maurlein, president of Christian Brothers College (now University) in Memphis, the secretary and manager. Brother Maurlein's appointment may have been due to the strong presence of the Christian Brothers' educational exhibits at previous world's fairs. As a final sign of the exhibit's potential, Pope Leo XIII stated his support in a letter dated July 20, 1892.

An important aspect of the Catholic Educational Exhibit may very well have been to counter efforts of the American Protective Association (APA), which claimed that Catholics wished to impose their values on public schools. Beginning in 1869 in Cincinnati, Ohio, incidents between Catholics, the public schools, and national and state governments occurred, especially in the late 1880s and early 1890s in other Midwest states. Established in Clinton, Iowa, in 1887, by Henry Bowers, the APA sought to elect anti-Catholic officials and reached its most powerful point in 1894 before declining in the late 1890s. To the APA, the growing number of problems with Catholics and the public schools appeared to be an assault for a Catholic takeover. The takeover would not necessarily have to be through direct control, but could also be as a result of Catholics draining public funds for their schools, which the APA believed produced wicked children. The Catholic Educational Exhibit would make a strong stand for the positive aspects of the religion in a part of the country where the APA had decided to try and win significant political power in 1892 and 1893.

Within the Catholic community, the discussion as to whether Catholic education should be a part of the American education system became a more pressing issue as more and more Catholics immigrated to America by the mid-19th century. On one side, there were those that feared including Catholic education as part of the overall school system would simply create a non-religious curriculum. One the other hand, some people believed that the assimilation into American schools by accepting public funds had to take place so that immigrants could become a part of the country and not be simply considered "the other." By the 1870s, though, many states settled this issue by passing laws that prohibited funds from the public coffers being dispensed to parochial schools. Regardless of this lack of federal funding, Catholic school systems developed rapidly in the 19th century, both as a result of incoming immigrants and as a bulwark against a public school system viewed as either too Protestant or too secular. If the school's curriculum did not reflect the Catholic faith, then children would not be properly educated. In the early 1890s, however, around the time of the World's Fair, a debate emerged over the idea that sending children to public schools could be permissible as long as administrators did not use problematic educational materials. Dr. Thomas J. Bouquillon of Catholic University articulated this idea in the pamphlet "Education: to Whom Does it Belong?" Cardinal James Gibbons and Archbishop John Ireland advocated this position, and Archbishop Francesco Satolli, the first apostolic delegate to the United States, even appeared support the idea in a speech at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1892. By the next year, though, Pope Leo XIII reaffirmed the findings of the first Provincial Council of Baltimore, which in 1829 proclaimed that, essentially, Catholics required their own separate educational system in America.

Another aspect of the Catholic presence at the World's Fair tied into the formal name of the fair itself: the World's Columbian Exposition. American Catholics traced Christopher Columbus' heritage back to Italy and a Catholic background, so they could argue that a Catholic established the Christian heritage in the new world. During the mid-1860s, Catholics in America as well as newly arrived immigrants began to honor Columbus. This sanctification of Columbus only increased with the arrival of Italians who claimed Columbus as one of their own countrymen, and this idea of honoring Columbus as a Catholic, Italian, and American developed into "Columbianism." The festivities celebrating "Columbus Day" appeared in New York and had spread to other cities in America by the 1870s. In San Francisco and other seaports, celebrations included reenactments of the ships landing in the New World. As a result of Columbus' status among Catholic Americans, new buildings that served the community often included his name by the late 19th century. Despite the failed attempt to persuade the Vatican to canonize Columbus, a group of laymen nonetheless named him as their patron. Founded in 1882 in Hartford, Connecticut, the Knights of Columbus developed into the largest Catholic laymen organization in the world, and the largely Irish ethnicity of its founders indicated that the pride in Columbianism included more than just Italian Americans. Since Columbus discovered America, the Knights argued, they had just as much right to be full citizens of the country as Protestants, particularly those in the American Protective Association. In fact, the landing of Columbus (granted, in the Caribbean) signified the Catholic claim to the country just as Protestants could claim the Mayflower landing at Plymouth their right to be in the country.

Columbianism did not only circulate among Catholics. In 1892, presidential candidates Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison encouraged public school children, standing under the flag, to recite the Pledge of Allegiance as a way to recognize the importance of Columbus as the World's Fair opened in Chicago on October 12. All of this Columbian "civil religion" played an important role at the World's Fair as 24 million people visited the grounds and viewed the manifestation of American identity. The exposition's official dedication, however, did not occur until October 21, 1892 for a variety of reasons with one of them being that fair organizers argued that the change in calendars over the centuries rendered October 12 the incorrect date.

The enormous Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building designed by architect George B. Post housed the Catholic Educational Exhibit. The largest building in the world at the time, it required seven million feet of lumber, five railroad carloads of nails, and three-dozen railroad carloads of glass. Requiring more iron and steel than the Brooklyn Bridge, the structure loomed over the grounds as high as a nineteen-floor building. After receiving a white mixture of plaster, cement, and fiber to quickly coat the outside walls, the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building joined the other structures as part of the "White City."

Despite the fact that educational exhibits, particularly Catholic educational exhibits, had come to play a more important role in more recent fairs and other large events both abroad and in the U.S., establishing space among the tools of industry turned out to be no easy task as the fair organizers allocated more space to the manufactures than liberal arts exhibits. Although organizers requested 61,000 square feet of space for the Catholic Educational Exhibit in May 1892, the space requested by the Manufacturer's section reduced the entire Liberal Arts space from 200,000 to 90,000 square feet leaving the Catholic Educational Exhibit with about 10,000 square feet.

After months of meetings with World's Fair officials, the Catholic Educational Exhibit eventually wound up with 29,214 square feet, which allowed for 65,000 square feet of space for displays on walls and tables, every square inch of which exhibitors used. Despite only having seventeen or eighteen attendants at a time, only some schools reported musical volumes missing when their materials had been returned. Many of the vestments and other valuable material objects were placed behind wire or other security features, perhaps as a precaution against potential anti-Catholic vandalism. On the other hand, the patriotic decorations that adorned the exhibit area may have explained the absence of vandalism. Fifteen large United States flags hung above the alcoves and 150 smaller ones lined the walkways. According to a local Chicago newspaper, the Catholic Educational Exhibit far exceeded other United States school exhibits in such patriotic displays.

In the end, the Catholic Church as well as non-Catholics considered the exhibit a success. Although the exhibit did not solve the problems of nativism, the educational community within the Catholic Church no doubt benefited from coming together at a time of both internal and external strife.

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Scope and Contents

The Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Photographs consists of fifty 8"x10" photographs documenting the building, hall, and alcoves where Catholic educational institutions displayed objects and printed material from 1892-1893 during the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. Although the educational exhibits occupied 115 alcoves, the photographs document less than half. Of particular interest is the photograph with Brother Maurelian, Monsignor Satolli, and Monsignor O’Connell on October 22, 1892, the date of the exhibit dedication. The photographs were previously housed in a scrapbook, and captions from the photographs are included in the item descriptions. A digital reproduction of each photograph may be accessed by clicking on the "Image" link above the descriptions.

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Arrangement

The Catholic Educational Exhibit, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Photographs consists of 50 photographs aaranged as they were found in the photograph album.

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Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

None.

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Administrative Information

Custodial History

The photograph album originated from the Special Collections/Archives at Mount Saint Mary's College in Emmitsburg, Maryland, and they donated the album to the National Catholic Education Association. The NCEA then sent album to the CUA Archives. The album may have originally been one of those produced following the World's Columbian Exposition and presented to members of the Catholic Church heirarchy.

Acquisition Information

Donated by Kelly Fitzpatrick in 1995.

Processing Information

The photographs were removed from a deteriorating album and sleeved in mylar. The photographs remain in the order in which they were found.

Processing completed in June 2004 by Pamela Chambliss. EAD markup completed in March 2006 by Jordan Patty. Scanning completed in February 2007 by Patrick Cullom, Marcella Fredriksson, and Marianne Giltrud.

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Related Material

The American Catholic History Center and University Archives:

Thomas J. Bouquillon Papers

William James Onahan Papers

Cardinal Francesco Satolli Papers (microfilm)

John L. Stoddard Photographs

CUA Rare Books Department:

The World’s Columbian Catholic Congresses and Educational Exhibit ... : To Which is added an Epitome of Catholic Church Progress in the United States ... (1893, c1892)

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division:

Catholic Educational Exhibit Photographs

University of Maryland Architecture Library:

A Treasury of World's Fair Art and Architecture

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Index Terms

This record series is indexed under the following controlled access subject terms.


Persons:
O'Connell, William, 1859-1944
Satolli, Francesco, 1839-1910
Sheel, George Valin (Brother Maurelian)

Organizations:
Catholic Church United States

Places:
Chicago (Ill.)

Subjects:
Catholic Church Education United States
World's Columbian Exposition (1893: Chicago, Ill.)


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Bibliography

Barton, George. Columbus the Catholic: A Comprehensive Story of Discovery. Baltimore: John Murphy and Company, 1893.

Desmond, Humphrey J. The A.P.A. Movement: A Sketch. Washington: The New Century Press, 1912.

Maurelian, Brother. Final Report: Catholic Educational Exhibit, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. [Chicago, World's Fair?]1893.

Muccigrosso, Robert. Celebrating the New World: Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993.

Rothman, Stanley, "The Politics of Catholic Parochial Schools," The Journal of Politics 25, no. 1 (1963): 49-71.

Schlereth, Thomas J. "Columbia, Columbus, and Columbianism," The Journal of American History 79, no. 3 (1992): 937-968.

Wallace, Les. The Rhetoric of Anti-Catholicism: The American Protective Association, 1887-1911. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990.

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Detailed Description of the Collection

                       
Photographs, 1892-1893 (1 box)
The photographs are organized as they were found in the scrapbook. A digital reproduction of each photograph may be accessed by clicking on the "Image" link above the descriptions.
Oversize  
1   1. Southeast View of Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building, 1893
        Image
        No. 1 Caption under photo reads “Southeast view of Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building, in which the Catholic Educational Exhibit was installed”.
   
    2. Alcove No. 41, 1893
        Image
        No. 119 Caption under photo reads “View of Columbian Library of Catholic Authors”.
   
    3. Alcoves No. 80 and 82, 1893
        Image
        No. 115 Caption under photo reads “Magnificent Gothic altar from Papal College, Josephinum, Columbus, Ohio. Carved in hard wood by orphans of the Industrial School, Rev. Jos. Jessing, president. Diocese of Columbus”.
   
    4. Alcove No. 4, 1893
        Image
        No. 28 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits of illuminated and artistic pen and brush work, schools of Sisters de Notre Dame, Boston and Cincinnati”.
   
    5. View of East Aisle Running North and South, 1893
        Image
        No. 5 Caption under photo reads “View of east aisle running north and south, showing exterior of alcoves from Nos. 92 to 115. Distance 140 feet”.
   
    6. East aisle running north and south, 1893
        Image
        No. 6 Caption under photo reads “East aisle running north and south through the Catholic Educational Exhibit, from Alcove No. 76 to Alcove No. 115. Distance 210 feet”.
   
    7. View of Archbishop Feehan’s Statue in Carara Marble, 1893
        Image
        No. 7 Caption under photo reads “View of Archibishop Feehan’s statue in Carara marble, and art work of the academies from the Archdiocese of Chicago”.
   
    8. Alcove No. 69, 1893
        Image
        No. 9 Caption under photo reads “Alcove No. 69, diocesan exhibits of Chicago, St. Michael’s, St. Paul’s, St. Stanislaus’, and other schools”.
   
    9. General View of the exhibits, 1893
        Image
        No. 13 Caption under photo reads “General view of the exhibits from the Archdiocese of Chicago”.
   
    10. Exhibits of the Archdiocese of Chicago, 1893
        Image
        No. 14 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits of the Archdiocese of Chicago, Eliza Allen Starr’s art exhibit, St. Francis’ Xavier’s Academy, Ephpheta School, and House of the Good Shepherd”.
   
    11. Alcove No. 70, 1893
        Image
        No. 17 Caption under photo reads “Alcove No. 70, diocesan exhibit of Chicago. Parish-school exhibites of class and art work”.
   
    12. Alcove No. 72, 1893
        Image
        No. 15 Caption under photo reads “Alcove 72, diocesan exhibit of Chicago. Class and art work of parish schools”.
   
    13. Alcove No. 58, 1893
        Image
        No. 19 Caption under photo reads “Alcove No. 58, Institute of Our Lady, Longwood, Ill., School Sisters of Notre Dame, class and art work and herbarium”.
   
    14. Alcoves No. 35 and 37, 1893
        Image
        No. 20 Caption under photo reads “Alcoves Nos. 35 and 37, diocesan exhibit of Dubuque. Exhibit of fifty-four institutions, colleges, academies, and parish schools”.
   
    15. Alcoves Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1893
        Image
        No. 22 Caption under photo reads “Alcoves Nos. 1, 2 and 3, collective exhibits of the School Sisters of Notre Dame of Milwaukee and Baltimore, with their schools from all parts of the United States. The diocesan exhibit of Milwaukee is partly in these alcoves”.
   
    16. Alcoves Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1893
        Image
        No. 23 Caption under photo reads “Alcoves Nos. 1, 2 and 3, collective exhibits of the School Sisters of Notre Dame of Milwaukee and Baltimore, with their schools from all parts of the United States. The diocesan exhibit of Milwaukee is partly in these alcoves”.
   
    17. Alcove No. 60, 1893
        Image
        No. 24 Caption under photo reads “Alcove No. 60, annex exhibit of the School Sisters of Notre Dame of Milwaukee, from various parts in the United States”.
   
    18. Ideal Structure, Statistics of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, 1893
        Image
        No. 26 Caption under photo reads “Ideal Structure, giving statistics of the School Sisters of Notre Dame of Milwaukee, with over 73,000 pupils under instructions in America”.
   
    19. Alcove No. 4, 1893
        Image
        No. 27 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from Dominican Sisters, schools of the Archidiocese of Milwaukee, Nashville, Nesqually, St. Paul, and Grand Rapids. Exhibits of Sisters of Notre Dame, schools of dioceses Cincinnati, Boston, and Springfield”.
   
    20. South Aisle, 1893
        Image
        No. 30 Caption under photo reads “South aisle, running east and west with exterior view of Alcoves Nos. 5 to 14, exhibits of the Archdiocese of New York”.
   
    21. Alcove No. 5, 1893
        Image
        No. 31Caption under photo reads “Exhibits of the Archdiocese of New York. Academy of the Holy Rosary, St. Jerome’s Academy and School, St. Nicholas’ (male and female school), St. Vincent Ferrers’, and St. Stephen’s Schools”.
   
    22. Alcove No. 7, 1893
        Image
        No. 33 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. Immaculate Conception School (E. 14th Street), Immaculate Conception School (151st Street), St. Alphonsus School, St. Lawrence’s School, and St. Mary’s School of Poughkeepsie, N.Y.”.
   
    23. Alcove No. 9, 1893
        Image
        No. 35 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. Cathedral School (male and female), St. Patrick’s School (Mulberry Street)”.
   
    24. Alcove No. 12, 1893
        Image
        No. 38 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. Manhattan College and De la Salle Institute”.
   
    25. Alcoves Nos. 13 and 14, 1893
        Image
        No. 40 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. New York Catholic Protectory. (Male and Female)”.
   
    26. Alcoves Nos. 13 and 14 - Exterior Views, 1893
        Image
        No. 41 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. Exterior View of Alcoves Nos. 13 and 14, New York Catholic Protectory”.
   
    27. Alcove No. 76, 1893
        Image
        No. 42 Caption under photo reads “Archdiocese of New York. New York Annex, Alcove No. 76. St. Paul’s Academy, Institute of Mercy (Madison Avenue), St. Joseph’s School (127th Street), St. Joseph’s School (87th Street), Holy Rosary Convent, Holy Innocent’s School, St. Paul’s School, Assumption School; St. Mary’s School, Yonkers; St. Mary’s School, Rondout; St. Mary’s School, Rosebank; St. Augustine’s School, Sing Sing; St. Monica’s School”.
   
    28. Alcoves No. 15 and 16, 1893
        Image
        No. 46 Caption under photo reads “Exterior views of alcoves, exhibits from the Archdiocese of Philadelphia”.
   
    29. Alcove No. 30, 1893
        Image
        No. 66 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from the Diocese of Buffalo, University, colleges, academies, and parish schools”.
   
    30. Alcoves No. 15 and 16, 1893
        Image
        No. 47 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from the Archdiocese of Philadelphia”.
   
    31. Alcove No. 40, 1893
        Image
        No. 49 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia”.
   
    32. Alcove No. 25, 1893
        Image
        No. 58 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of San Francisco. Schools of the Christian Brothers, Sisters of the Holy Names, Sisters of Mercy, Presentation Nuns, and Sisters of Charity”.
   
    33. Alcove No. 27, 1893
        Image
        No. 59 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of San Francisco. Schools of the Christian Brothers, Brothers of Mary, Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Dominick, Presentation Nuns, Sisters of Charity, Sisters of the Holy Family, Sisters of St. Joseph. A part of this alcove contained a large portion of the kindergarten exhibits of the parish schools of the diocese”.
   
    34. Alcove No. 18, 1893
        Image
        No. 63 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of Brooklyn. Exhibits from colleges, academies, parish schools, orphanages, and industrial schools”.
   
    35. Alcove No. 20, 1893
        Image
        No. 64 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of Brooklyn. Exhibits from colleges, academies, parish schools, orphanages, and industrial schools”.
   
    36. Alcove No. 20, 1893
        Image
        No. 65 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of Brooklyn. Exhibits of art and industrial work”.
   
    37. Alcoves Nos. 44 and 46, 1893
        Image
        No. 71 Caption under photo reads “West-dise view of the Catholic Historical Exhibit of portraits and church relics, Bishops’ Memorial Hall of Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, Ind., Diocese of Ft Wayne”.
   
    38. Alcoves Nos. 38 and 40, 1893
        Image
        No. 73 Caption under photo reads “East view of exhibits of Notre Dame University. Portrait in oil of the late Very Rev. Father Sorin, C.S.C. Superior General. Exhibits from science class; publications of various halls; collegiate, scientific, and literary department; photographs taken by the science class”.
   
    39. Alcove No. 24, 1893
        Image
        No. 74 Caption under photo reads “Part of exhibits from the Diocese of Green Bay. From Academies, parish and industrial schools”.
   
    40. Alcove No. 43, 1893
        Image
        No. 75 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from academies and parish schools of Diocese of La Crosse”.
   
    41. Alcove No. 53, 1893
        Image
        No. 77 Caption under photo reads “Exterior and interior view of Alcove No. 53, Diocese of Manchester and Sioux Falls. Artistic embroidered vestment by Benedictine Sisters, Ferdinand, Ind. Diocese of Vincennes. Art work by Sisters of Mercy and Brothers of Mary”.
   
    42. Alcove No. 47, 1893
        Image
        No. 78 Caption under photo reads “Diocesan exhibit of Pittsburg. Holy Ghost College and Ursuline Academy, Pittsburg; St. Vincent’s Seminary (Benedictine Fathers), Beatty, Pa., and St. Fedeli’s College, Herman, Pa., (Capuchin Fathers)”.
   
    43. Alcove No. 95, 1893
        Image
        No. 84 Caption under photo reads “Brothers of Mary, exhibits from parish schools in various parts of the United States”.
   
    44. Alcove No. 55, 1893
        Image
        No. 85 Caption under photo reads “Brothers of Mary, parish schools from various parts of the United States, Winnipeg, and Hawaii Islands”.
   
    45. Alcove No. 113, 1893
        Image
        No. 89 Caption under photo reads “Christian Brothers. Set of plaster casts, models in zinc and wood, to aid in teaching design, drawing, and construction”.
   
    46. Alcove No. 108, 1893
        Image
        No. 95 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from professional, art, and boarding schools of St. Pierre and St. Luke, Lille-Beauvais, and other cities. Brothers of the Christian Schools”.
   
    47. Alcove No. 65, 1893
        Image
        No. 112 Caption under photo reads “Sisters of Providence, Vigo Co., Ind. Exhibits of literary, scientific, and art work from forty missions, mainly in Diocese of Vincennes”.
   
    48. Alcove No. 63, 1893
        Image
        No. 113 Caption under photo reads “Exterior of art work from St. Joseph’s Convent, South St. Louis, Mo. Archidiocese of St. Louis”.
   
    49. Alcoves Nos. 98 and 100, 1893
        Image
        No. 102 Caption under photo reads “Exhibits from La Salle Preparatory Normal School, Glencoe, Mo. Parish Schools of Archdiocese of St. Louis. St. Joseph’s Commercial College, St. Patrick’s School, Diocese of St. Joseph. Cathedral Commercial School, Kansas City, Diocese of Kansas City. Cretin High School, Archdiocese of St. Paul, and St. Patrick’s Commercial Academy, St. Mary’s Training School, Feehanville, Chicago, Archdiocese of Chicago, and St. Joseph’s School, New Orleans, Archdiocese of New Orleans”.
   
    50. Group Photo, October 22, 1892
        Image
        No. 120 Caption under photo reads “Group representing scene October 22, 1892 : Brother Maurelian, secretary and manager of the Catholic Educational Exhibit, greeting Monsignor Satolli, special delegate from His Holiness, Leo XIII., to the World’s Fair, accompanied by Monsignor O’Connell, Rector of the American College, Rome, Italy”.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Descriptive Summary

Historical Note

Scope and Contents

Arrangement

Restrictions

Administrative Information

Related Material

Index Terms

Bibliography

Detailed Description of the Collection

Photographs, 1892-1893

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