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Italian Episcopal and Papal Conclave Letters and Pius IX/Risorgimento

An inventory of the Italian Episcopal and Papal Conclave Letters and Pius IX/Risorgimento Collection at The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives


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Descriptive Summary

Repository: The Catholic University of America, The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives
Creator: Italian Episcopal and Papal Conclave Letters and Pius IX/Risorgimento
Title: Italian Episcopal and Papal Conclave Letters and Pius IX/Risorgimento Collection
Dates: [1305?]-1870
Extent: 1 linear foot; 2 boxes
Abstract: Numerous letters, mostly in Italian but some in Latin, concerning Italian archbishops and bishops as well as reports from various papal conclaves. Authors of the reports include Alberto Macchiavelli and Lelio Maretti.
Collection Number: ACUA 209
Language: Italian, Latin, French, and English

Historical Note

Papal States and Risorgimento

The Papal States arose in the eighth century out of the conflict between the papacy and the Byzantine emperors. The state was originally under Frankish protection. In the Middle Ages, the papacy laid foundations of its administrative independence. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the international weakening of the papacy went hand in hand with greater centralization. During the two centuries before the French invasion of 1796, the Papal States underwent a progressive decline; and they were temporarily wiped off the map in 1798.

Popes Leo XII (Annibale Sermattei Della Genga; 1823-1829), Pius VIII (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni; 1829-1830), and Gregory XVI ((Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari; in religion Mauro Cappellari, Camaldolese friar;1831-1846), remained opposed to reform. Inspired by the July Revolution in Paris (1830), insurrections erupted in Bologna and spread to Umbria, Romagna, and the Marches, giving rise to several provisional governments under Terenzio Mamiani. The revolt was crushed by France and Austria. The great powers (France, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia) then sent Gregory XVI a list of measures needed to prevent further revolts, including admission of laity to higher positions, enforcement of the 1816 constitution, and the creation of local and provincial legislatures; the pope rejected almost all of these proposals. The papacy feared that limitations on temporal power would weaken its spiritual authority. The election of the popular Pius IX (Giovanni Mastai Ferretti; 1846-1878), in the conclave of June 14-16 1846, strengthened the moderates' hands: "Rome esulta, alla notizia del nuovo eletto" ("Rome exults, at the news of the new pope-elect"; Caravale and Caracciolo, 642) The pope granted amnesty to political prisoners; authorized the creation of railroads; and received Jews in Rome without symbolic humiliation. True political newspapers came into being (from clandestine leaflets). Pius IX organized a lay Consulta di Stato (similar to Parliament) and a civil guard; and he cemented his popularity by protesting the Austrian occupation of Ferrara.

However, as head of the Catholic Church, the pope could not wage war against Austria as the liberals desired, so that relations with the legislature became sour. In November 1848, radicals assassinated Pius IX's prime minister Rossi, and subsequent revolts drove the pope from Rome; a Roman Republic was established in 1849.

The Austrians and French reinstated Pius IX in 1850. Henceforth the pope was dependent on foreign support. Resenting what he considered ingratitude, the pope abandoned his earlier liberal tendencies. Ten years later, the Papal States, bereft of foreign protection, lost the legations, the Marches, and Umbria to the new Kingdom of Italy, which proclaimed Rome to be its capital in 1861. The French reluctantly continued to protect what was left of the Papal States until the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 distracted them; Italy took advantage of the situation to annex Rome and put an end to the Papal States, although the pope retained personal sovereignty.

Diocese of Gubbio

The Diocese of Gubbio was directly subject to the papacy until 1563, when it was placed under Urbino; but Urbino was not able to exercise ecclesiastical authority over Gubbio until the eighteenth century. Famous bishops of Gubbio included Cardinal [Pietro] Bembo, Marcello Cervino (Marcellus II), Alessandro Sperelli (1644; well-known author), and Mariano Savelli.

Conclaves and Conclavistica

Originally, the Bishop of Rome was elected in the same way as any other bishop, by the clergy, the laity (or part of it), and neighboring bishops. From the fourth to the eleventh century, temporal rulers played a prominent role in the choice of the pope.

The institution of the conclave developed between the eleventh and the sixteenth century. In 1059, Nicholas II decreed that only the higher clergy of Rome had the right to elect a pope. In order to prevent a long interval between pontificates, Gregory X, in the bull Ubi Periculum, instituted the system of strict seclusion (the conclave) in 1274. In 1562, Pius IV brought further modifications to the procedure. The method has remained largely intact up to the present. The election is by secret ballot, and a two-thirds majority or greater is required for a valid election. Starting in the sixteenth century, conclaves generated a substantial literature around a branch of politics known as conclavistica. While insisting on the inscrutable role of the Holy Spirit in guiding papal elections, the authors were more interested in such mundane factors as the character, vices, virtues, interests, connections, and rivalries of the cardinals; the money spent by ambassadors to buy votes; and the machinations of the various factions in the College. The literature of conclavistica flourished in the middle of the seventeenth century, with a growing number of manuscripts and, to a lesser extent (for prudential reasons) printed works. Various crises of succession, along with polemics regarding specific candidates and the role of secular rulers in papal elections, led to this flowering. Conclave writings can be divided into three broad categories: conclave reports; predictions, along with lists of cardinals (called statere/stadere or papeide), and theoretical treatises. In addition, there are polemical, propagandistic, and satirical writings; authors include Vittorino Siri, Giulio Cesare Braccini, and Cesare Magalotti. Theoretical works held pride of place, and were often inserted into historical works; the principal authors included Gio[vanni] Francesco Lottini (Discorso sopra l'attioni del conclave di M. Gio Francesco Lottino; the variation in the surname is in Costantini, and probably goes back to Lottini) and Felice Gualtieri; others include Braccini and Magalotti.

The leading author of historical accounts and reports was Alberto Macchiavelli (1583), who also translated conclave reports from Latin. Macchiavelli collected and translated conclave reports concerning Nicholas V, Callistus III, Pius II, Leo X, Adrian VI, Clement VII, and Julius III (author unknown); Innocent VIII, Pius III, and Julius II (by Giovanni Brocardo); Alexander VI (by Michele Ferro); Pius IV (by Antonio Guido); Marcellus II, Paul IV, and Pius V (Lottini); and Gregory XIII (author unknown).

Conclave reports are further divided into histories, diaries, and avvisi (notices, news). Histories, called as a rule simply conclavi or conclaves, have higher literary ambitions and are more analytical; diaries are more concerned with ceremonies and minutiae. Authors of history include Alberto Macchiavelli and Agostino Mascardi (Gregory XV); diarists include Bastiano Casini. Avvisi were technically illegal, as no member in the conclave was supposed to send or receive any written matter; but this prohibition was ineffective. Examples include the dispatches of Giminiano Poggi (1644), Rinaldo e'Este, and Federico Cornaro. Secular rulers had regular access to information on events. Lists of cardinals considered "papabili" (singular "papabile"; literally, "popeable") became detached from predictions around the middle of the seventeenth century, and became a popular and often scurrilous genre, tinged with anti-curial polemic (Ferrante Pallavicino) and journalistic opportunism (Gregorio Leti, according to Costantini). These writings, besides containing juicy gossip, discussed such factors as age (the older, the better), culture and literacy, relations or entourage, etc. Among cardinals deemed "papabili," only a tiny minority were true candidates. However, these lists tended to extend to all the cardinals, since all cardinals participated in the election, and tended to move from prediction to personal description or caricature. They circulated anonymously, although some authors are known.

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Scope and Contents

Consisting mainly of reports and letters, the collection is arranged into three series: Series 1: Diocese of Gubbio Correspondence; Series 2:Papal Conclave Letters; and Series 3: Pius IX/Risorgimento. Series 3 is divided into three subseries: Subseries 3.1: Dispatches/reports; Subseries 3.2: Cassa dei Fondi pubblici degli Stati con privilegio Pontificio; Subseries 3.3: Correspondence and Essays.

Series 1 has ten folders, containing letters related to the Diocese of Gubbio. There are various authors; several letters are addressed to (Antonio) Tondi. Most of them date from the 17th century; but there is a letter from 1814 in Latin from Mario de' Baroni Acajani, Bishop of Gubbio, as well as letters from 1870 and 1769. The letters are not in chronological order. These letters are hard to read; names are extremely difficult or impossible to read. Condition varies: most fair (somewhat fragile); but some holes, stains.

Series 2 consists of conclave reports and related material, and contains nine folders. Several authors, including Alberto Macchiavelli. 16th, 17th centuries. Dates given on the documents may not be actual dates of the manuscript. Italian and Latin.

Series 3 consists of three subseries. (Unless otherwise stated, all materials are in Italian). Subseries 3.1 contains six folders and consists of reports/dispatches from the Papal States under Pius X. Authorship is as yet unknown; some reports have "Antonio Reisperg" (Reisperg also given as "Reisberger") written on the back; others have "Sig[nore] Dott[ore] Ernst, or only "Ernst". Also included is a clipping from a Bavarian German-language newspaper, Münchener Politische Zeitung, July 28, 1819. Concerns parliamentary assembly meeting in Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria. Further study might reveal some connection between this item and other parts of the collection. Reports are roughly organized according to date but do not usually give the year and are not always in exact chronological order. Paper is in good condition but fragile. Handwriting is fairly legible.

Subseries 3.2 contains three folders with material related to the "Cassa dei Fondi pubblici degli Stati con privilegio Pontificio [Bank of public funds in the States with papal privilege]."

Subseries 3.3 consists of three folders with letters, reports of commissions, and essays, all bearing on conditions in the papal states and Italian politics.

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Arrangement

The Italian Episcopal and Papal Conclave Letters and Pius IX/Risorgimento Collection consists of three series:




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Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

There may be access restrictions due to the fragile nature of the documents.

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Administrative Information

Custodial History

CUA Rare Books and Special Collections purchased the collection from Mt. St. Mary's College in Emmitsburg, Maryland in 1989.

Acquisition Information

Donated by G. Brian Cardell of CUA Rare Books and Special Collections in 2003 .

Processing Information

Processing completed in June 2006 by Nicholas J. Tussing. EAD markup completed in June 2006 by Nicholas J. Tussing, Jordan Patty, and Cathey Dugan.

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Related Material

The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives:

The Papal Autograph Collection

The Vatican I Scrapbook.

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Index Terms

This record series is indexed under the following controlled access subject terms.


Persons:
Macchiavelli, Alberto
Maretti, Lelio
Pius IX, Pope, 1792-1878

Organizations:
Catholic Church. Diocese of Gubbio

Places:
Italy--History--1815-1870
Papal States

Subjects:
Papacy
Popes--Election


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Bibliography

Benigni, U. "Gubbio." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 7. Transcribed by Judy Levandoski. Appleton, 1910. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07055a.htm.

Benigni, U. "Passaglia, Carlo." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11. Appleton, 1911. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11518b.htm.

Benigni, U. "Rossi, Pellegrino." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 13. Transcribed by Ferruccio Germani. Appleton, 1912. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13204a.htm.

Caravale, Mario, and Alberto Caracciolo. Lo Stato pontificio da Martino V a Pio IX. Turin: UTET, 1978.

Costantino, Claudio. "Scritture di conclave: Il maggior negotio." In "Fazione Urbana: Sbandimento e ricomparizione di una grande clientela a metà Seicento." http://www.quaderni.net/WebFazione/d1generi.html. Last revised November, 2005. Accessed May 24, 2006.

Forshaw, B. "Conclave." New Catholic Encyclopedia 4: 60. 2nd edition. Detroit: Gale, 2003; c. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 2002.

Jarry, E., R. Mori, and F.J. Coppa: "States of the Church." New Catholic Encyclopedia 13: 490-497. 2nd edition. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America, 2003.

Ott, Michael. "Pius IX." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 12. Transcribed by WGKofron [sic]. Appleton, 1911. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12134b.htm.

Prodi, Paolo. The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls: The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Europe. Translated by Susan Haskins. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Originally published in Italian as Il sovrano pontefice, un corpo e due anime: la monarchia papale nella prima età moderna; Bologna: Il Mulino, 1982.

Scott, Ivan. The Roman Question and the Powers, 1848-1865. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1969.

Swift, A., G. Morrisey, and S. Miranda. "Popes, Election of." New Catholic Encyclopedia 11: 498-501. 2nd edition. Detroit: Gale, 2003; c. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 2002.

Weber, N.A. "Pope Pius VII." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 12. Transcribed by W. G. Kofron. Appleton, 1911. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12132a.htm.

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Detailed Description of the Collection

                       
Series 1: Diocese of Gubbio Correspondence, 1611-1870 (10 folders)
Series 1 contains letters related to the Diocese of Gubbio. There are various authors; several letters are addressed to (Antonio) Tondi. Most of them date from the 17th century, and they are not in chronological order. These letters are hard to read; names are extremely difficult or impossible to read.
Box Folder
1 1 Correspondence, 1653-1814
  2 Correspondence, 1653-ca. 1690
  3 Correspondence, [1611?]-1667
  4 Correspondence, [1664?]-[1678?]
  5 Correspondence, 1662-1675
  6 Correspondence, [1649?]-ca. 1660
  7 Correspondence, 1653-1870
  8 Correspondence, 1652-1657
  9 Correspondence, n.d.
  10 Correspondence, 1615-[1694?]
                       
Series 2: Papal Conclave Reports, [1305?]-1623 (9 folders)
Series 2 consists of conclave reports and related material. Dates given on the documents may not be actual dates of the manuscript. Material written in Italian and Latin.
Box Folder
1 11 Reports, 1523-1572
        Amabassdor dispatches narrating the death of Emperor charles V in 1558 and other events from 1558-1559; instructions from the Duke of Alba to Count San Valentino, envoy to the pope (1556), and from the pope to his envoy to the Duke of Alba, Dom[enico] di San [?] Nero; a Latin petition from Balbiani to Pius V. [Probably in folder 1, possibly folder 2:] list of cardinals at the election of Clement VII (1523); conclaves of Paul III (1534), Julius III (1550), Marcellus II (1555), Paul IV (1555), Gregory XIII (1572); list of cardinals at the election of Pius V (1566).
  12 Reports, [1378?]-1523
        Account of the election of Urban VI in 1378 (the actual manuscript is almost certainly 16th-century; 1590?); conclaves of Leo X (1513), Adrian II (1522), and Clement VII (1523).
  13 Reports, [n.d.]-1621
        Correspondence and accounts by Gregory XV (1621); Fabritio Lostaro[?], Avvertimenti Generali Necissarj a Chi Non Sia Stato Altre Volte in Conclave [General Remarks Necessary for Those who Have Never Been in Conclave] (after 1558); a letter to the Cavaliere Vinta, secretary of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, on relations with Rome (1601); a letter to the ambassador of savoy (1610); remarks on curial politics; Gio[vanni] Mocenigo, Cardinal Ambassador, Relatione di Roma [Report from Rome]; and Discorso di NN. alla Repubblica di Venezia 'anno 1618 [Discourse of NN. (anonymous) to the Republic of Venice in the Year 1618].
  14 Reports, 1583-1590
        Treatise on conclaves by Alberto Macchiavelli [ca. 1583]; other treatises, including a defense of Spanish rule in Italy; and the conclave of Gregory XIV by Lelio Maretti (1590); and conclave reports.
  15 Reports, [1417?]-1534
        List of arguments against various Papal candidates (after 1700); the conclave of Sixtus V (1585); "Conclave of Paul V in which Gregory XV Was Made Pope" (1621); a Latin document, possibly concerning the 1378 schism (but probably 16th-century); an epistle of Martin V (in Latin); conclaves of Innocent VIII (1484) and Adrian VI (1522), both Latin; and of Paul III (1534) in Italian.
Box Folder
2 1 Reports, [1305?]-1623
        Obscure Latin material and the conclaves of Marcellus II (1555), Pius IV (by Lottino; 1565), Clement V (1305; MS. probably 16th-century), Urban VII (1623), Leo XI (1605), Clement VIII (1592), and Innocent IX (1591), all in Italian.
  2 Reports, 1585-1623
        Latin documents (with signatures); a list of Cardinals in Italian, with comments (after 1623); conclaves of Urban VIII (1623?) and Sixtus V (1585).
  3 Reports, 1583-1590
        Treatise by Lelio Maretti and a comment on Gio[vanni] Francesco Lottino's conclavistic writings, with an addendum defending the conclavistica of Felice Gualtieri (by Alberto Macchiavelli?).
  4 Reports, 1583-1621
        Conclaves of Callistus III (1455) and Pius III (1503), translated into Italian by Alberto Macchiavelli (ca. 1583); Felice Gualtieri's Conclavistica; and the conclaves of Paul V (1605) and Gregory XV (1621).
                       
Series 3: Pius IX/Risorgimento, 1819-1866 (12 folders)
Series 3 consists of three subseries. Subseries 3.1 contains six folders and consists of dispatches/reports from the Papal States under Pius X.
Subseries 3.2 contains three folders with material related to the "Cassa dei Fondi pubblici degli Stati con privilegio Pontificio [Bank of public funds in the States with papal privilege]."
Subseries 3.3 consistes of three folders with correspondence, reports of commissions, and essays, all bearing on conditions in the papal states and Italian politics.
Unless otherwise stated, all materials are in Italian.
Subseries 3.1: Dispatches/Reports, 1819, [1859?]-1861 (6 folders)
 
Box Folder
2 5 Dispatches/Reports, July 28, 1819, (March 8, 1860-October 30, 1860)
        Dispatches/reports where authorship is unknown. Some reports have "Antonio Reisperg" ("Reisperg" also given as "Reisberger") written on the back; others have "Sig[nore] Dott[ore] Ernst", or only "Ernst". There is also a Bavarian print from July 28, 1819 from "Münchener Politische Zeitung".
  6 Dispatches/Reports, March 1, 1860-October 3, 1860
        Documents concerning diplomatic discussion with Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli (Secretary of State). Other documents report discussions between Pope and other officials. Other documents are official business but not necessarily diplomatic. Subjects treated include: King Francesco of Naples; General Lamoricière (or La Moricière), Minister of War in 1848; and Commander of the Papal Army in 1860; Retreat of Austrians from Papal States; Napoleon III; and the Unification of Italy.
  7 Dispatches/Reports, September 11, [1859?], (June 15, [1860?]-October 28, 1861)
        Information referring to the Actio pro Causa Italica [Action for the Italian Cause] of the theologian Carlo Passaglia (1861).
  8 Dispatches/Reports, March 5, [1860?]-March 27, [1861?]
        Information regarding Naples, Passaglia, the La Solette mission, and Cavour's letter to Santucci.
  9 Dispatches/Reports, February [2?], [1860?]-May 21, [1860?]
        Information about General de Goyon (leader of French troops in Italy, ca. 1859-1860), Lavalette (Marquis La Valette, replaced Gramont in 1861 as French ambassador to Rome), Francesco II (assassination attempt), and the Ferrovia Meridionale [Southern Railway].
  10 Dispatches/Reports, November 5, 1860-April 1, 1861
        Information regarding General Schmidt de Courten; fight at Correse; de Mérode (Papal Secretary of War); the Armistice of Gaeta [1849?]; and Napoleon III's letter to Pius IX.
Subseries 3.2: Cassa dei Fondi pubblici degli Stati con privilegio Pontificio, 1865-1866 (3 folders)
 
Box Folder
2 11 Dispatches/Reports, 1865-[1866?]
        Bylaws (after February, 1866), statutes [1865?], and a report to the Council of Ministers (October 30, 1865).
  12 Dispatches/Reports, November 17, 1865
        Concession for the establishment of the Cassa (November 17, 1865) written by Governo Pontificio, Ministero delle Finanze. An English translation is included.
  13 Dispatches/Reports, June 5, 1865-February 10, 1866
Subseries 3.3: Correspondence and Essays, 1821-1865 (3 folders)
 
Box Folder
2 14 Correspondence and Essays, 1821-1865
        "Ordine del Giorno: Corpo dei Caviatori[?] delle Alpi"; Giuseppe Garibaldi (May 7, 1860); documents concerning the death of Count Pellegrino Rossi including a biographical sketch; maritime notice of 1821, Civitavecchia; partial essay by Lunati, "Riflessioni dell'Ill[ustrissimo] Avvocato(?) Lunati sulla dissertazione del Signor Gib[erto?] Martini-Lupi intorno alle cause della mendicità in Roma e del mezzo facile ed economico per distruggerle" [causes of begging in Rome]; letter touching on historical role of papacy; correspondence in French to Cardinal Pitra (1812-1888); report of commission on begging to Pius IX (20 November, 1847); handwritten news reports (August, 1849); and a letter to author of "Work on Begging" (Colmo?) from Lorenzo Pievi(?) referring to Martini-Lupi (March 4, 1847).
  15 Correspondence and Essays, 1840-[1860?]
        A printed speech by Pius IX on Italian politics: Sanctissimi Domini Nostri Pii divina providentiâ Papae IX allocution habita in consistorio secreto (September 26, 1859); essay(?) on events of 1848 (refers to Count Terenzio Mamiani) from pro-Papal point of view written by Nicola Carcano(?); letter from (or to) Pietro Benvenuti, Police [Commissioner] ("Assessore di polizia"), August 6, 1840; correspondence regarding revolts in Papal States [1830?, 1848? 1860?]; essay on changes in Papal States [n.d.]; and "Ordine del Giorno del 26 Agosto, 1849", signed Gen[erale] Comand[ante] Le Vaillant issuing military instructions.
  16 Correspondence and Essays, 1840-1862
        Correspondence in French by unknown author (June 19, 1854) relating to events of 1848-1850; correspondence in French by unknown author to Baron Cotta, Rome (June 19, [1854?]); Document in Latin by Francesco M. Cipriani, Bishop of Veroli (January 20, 1841); a protest from "Il Comitato Nazionale Italiano [The Italian National Committee]" to Count de Goyon, Commander of French forces (December 29, 1860); correspondence by an unknown author to an unknown recipient (March 26, 1862).

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Descriptive Summary

Historical Note

Scope and Contents

Arrangement

Restrictions

Administrative Information

Related Material

Index Terms

Bibliography

Detailed Description of the Collection

Series 1: Diocese of Gubbio Correspondence, 1611-1870

Series 2: Papal Conclave Reports, [1305?]-1623

Series 3: Pius IX/Risorgimento, 1819-1866

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